The Thirty Years” War (1618-1648) first began with when the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia tried to reduce the religious activities of his subjects, provoked rebellion among Protestants. The war involved the strongest powers in europe for example, Sweden, France, Spain and Austria all of them prosecuting campaigns mainly on german land. Mostly known for the cruel wrong doings by mercenary soldiers, ending the war with a couple series of agreements that made up the Peace of Westphalia. The consequense of this adjusted and changed the political and religious map of central Europe, creating the oppertunity for the old centralized Roman Catholic empire to submit to a community of sovereign states.the Holy Roman Empire is a broad complex of one thousand separate, small, self govering, political groups under the domain of the Austrian Hapsburgs.
Over the last two centuries, the balance of power in the dominant states emerged. But this ended in the sixteenth century where the Reformation and the Counter Reformation divided Germany into aggressive Protestant and Catholic camps, each prepared to request help from other countires to assure its integrity if it became necessary.in 1618, when Ferdinand II started to remove certain religious privileges and enjoying the content there. Directly requesting for aid to the Protestants in the empire and to the bigger foreign Protestant states. For example, the Dutch Republic and denmark. Ferdinand responds with asking bavaria who is leading the German Catholics and spain. In the following effort, Ferdinand that got elected as Roman Emperor in 1619 and his allies won a important victory at White Mountain (1620) which allowed the annihilation of Protestantism in most parts of the Hapsburg lands.
Confident by this success, Ferdinand turned in 1621 against Bohemia’s Protestant supporters in Germany. even though having the help from Britain, Denmark, and the Dutch Republic they lost aswell and by 1629 imperial armies commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein killed most of Protestant Germany and a big part of Denmark. Ferdinand then distrubited the Edict of Restitution, taking back lands in the empire that belongs to the Catholic Church that had been captured and separated from religion by Protestant rulers.Swedish military support saved the Protestant cause. In 1630 an army led by King Gustav Adolf came to Germany with money from the French.for twelve years more armies carried out the dirty war, made both too support themselves and to demolish everything useful for the enemy country. Trouble arose when men had problems locating resources.
After time, came France’s victory over the Spaniards at Rocroi (1643) thus Sweden’s defeat of the Imperialists at Jankau (1645) forcing the Hapsburgs to make compromises that in 1648 led to the Peace of Westphalia, which fixed most of the larger issues.The Treaty is one of the most important documents in the history of Europe with details of returning the taken territories, information about wrong doing events during the war and the armies would be disbanded and all of the prisoners from war set free. A very important political result of the war and the treaty was that France became a dominant state in continental Europe. The Treaty laid the legal foundations for the modern system of IR.Things that were new in this war was that it can be called the first modern war. New fighting forces were made like mercenary troops and armed marauders. War became an industry which people could personally gain on and profiteers plundred resources at every given chance. The amount of people kiled was estimated to be around 4-12 milion lives, way more brutal and vicious than any other previous war.
The Dutch Empire
The Dutch Empire is the name given to the various territories controlled by the Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century. The Netherlands reigned supreme during much of the 17th century, which is known as Dutch Golden Age.The Netherlands followed Spain and Portugual in establishing a colonial empire outside of continental Europe. Their skills in shipping and trading and their surge of nationalism and militarism accompanying the struggle for independence from Spain aided the venture. Alongside the British, the Dutch initially built up colonial possessions on the basis of corporate colonialism, with the Dutch East India Company dominant. State intervention in the colonial enterprise came later. Some provinces of the Netherlands weren’t fond of Spain’s control over them, so some of them joined together in league against Spain, some of which I consider more important were the county of Holland, the county of Flanders, the county of Zeeland, the lordship of Friesland and the lordship of UtrechtThe Netherlands became part of the domains of the “Spanish branch” of the Habsburg dynasty when Emperor Charles V divided the holdings of the Habsburg Empire following his abdication in 1555.
In 1566, the Dutch revolt erupted and in 1568 the Dutch Republic embarked on the long, torturous path of the Eighty Years” War (also known as the Dutch War of Independence) and began the invasion and looting of Spanish (and, later, Portuguese) colonies in the Americas and of Asia, including an attempted invasion of the Philippines (then part of the Spanish East Indies)Dutch sailors also participated in the surge of exploration that unfolded in the 16th and 17th centuries. But the vast new territories revealed by Barents, Hudson and Tasman in the Arctic and in Australasia/Oceania did not generally become permanent Dutch colonies.